The UwU Manifesto

Originally Written by Karl Marx Translated to UwU by u/DarthAlecto

Chaptew 1. Bouwgeois awnd pwowetawians The histowy of aww hithewto existing society(2) iws the histowy of cwass stwuggwes. fweeman awnd swave, patwician awnd pwebeian, wowd awnd sewf, guiwd-mastew(3) awnd jouwneyman, in a wowd, oppwessow awnd oppwessed, stood in constant opposition tuwu owne anothew, cawwied own an unintewwupted, now hidden, now open fight, a fight thawt each time ended, eithew in a wevowutionawy weconstitution of society at wawge, ow in the common wuin of the contending cwasses. in the eawwiew epochs of histowy, we find awmost evewywhewe a compwicated awwangement of society intwo vawious owdews, a manifowd gwadation of sociaw wank. In ancient wome we have patwicians, knights, pwebeians, swaves; in the middwe ages, feudaw wowds, vassaws, guiwd-mastews, jouwneymen, appwentices, sewfs; in awmost aww of these cwasses, again, subowdinate gwadations. the modewn bouwgeois society thawt has spwouted fwom the wuins of feudaw society has nowt done away with cwass antagonisms. Iwt has but estabwished new cwasses, new conditions of oppwession, new fowms of stwuggwe in pwace of the owd ones. ouw epoch, the epoch of the bouwgeoisie, possesses, howevew, thiws distinct featuwe: iwt has simpwified cwass antagonisms. Society as a whowe iws mowe awnd mowe spwitting up intwo two gweat hostiwe camps, intwo two gweat cwasses diwectwy facing each othew — bouwgeoisie awnd pwowetawiat. fwom the sewfs of the middwe ages spwang the chawtewed buwghews of the eawwiest towns. Fwom these buwgesses the fiwst ewements of the bouwgeoisie wewe devewoped. the discovewy of amewica, the wounding of the cape, opened up fwesh gwound fow the wising bouwgeoisie. The east-indian awnd chinese mawkets, the cowonisation of amewica, twade with the cowonies, the incwease in the means of exchange awnd in commodities genewawwy, gave tuwu commewce, tuwu navigation, tuwu industwy, an impuwse nevew befowe known, awnd theweby, tuwu the wevowutionawy ewement in the tottewing feudaw society, a wapid devewopment. the feudaw system of industwy, in which industwiaw pwoduction was monopowised by cwosed guiwds, now no wongew sufficed fow the gwowing wants of the new mawkets. The manufactuwing system took its pwace. The guiwd-mastews wewe pushed own owne side by the manufactuwing middwe cwass; division of wabouw between the diffewent cowpowate guiwds vanished in the face of division of wabouw in each singwe wowkshop. meantime the mawkets kept evew gwowing, the demand evew wising. Even manufactuwew no wongew sufficed. Theweupon, steam awnd machinewy wevowutionised industwiaw pwoduction. The pwace of manufactuwe was taken by the giant, modewn industwy; the pwace of the industwiaw middwe cwass by industwiaw miwwionaiwes, the weadews of the whowe industwiaw awmies, the modewn bouwgeois. modewn industwy has estabwished the wowwd mawket, fow which the discovewy of amewica paved the way. Thiws mawket has given an immense devewopment tuwu commewce, tuwu navigation, tuwu communication by wand. Thiws devewopment has, in its tuwn, weacted own the extension of industwy;

awnd in pwopowtion as industwy, commewce, navigation, waiwways extended, in the same pwopowtion the bouwgeoisie devewoped, incweased its capitaw, awnd pushed intwo the backgwound evewy cwass handed down fwom the middwe ages. we see, thewefowe, how the modewn bouwgeoisie iws itsewf the pwoduct of a wong couwse of devewopment, of a sewies of wevowutions in the modes of pwoduction awnd of exchange. each step in the devewopment of the bouwgeoisie was accompanied by a cowwesponding powiticaw advance of thawt cwass. An oppwessed cwass undew the sway of the feudaw nobiwity, an awmed awnd sewf-govewning association in the medievaw commune(4): hewe independent uwban wepubwic (as in itawy awnd gewmany); thewe taxabwe “thiwd estate” of the monawchy (as in fwance); aftewwawds, in the pewiod of manufactuwing pwopew, sewving eithew the semi-feudaw ow the absowute monawchy as a countewpoise against the nobiwity, awnd, in fact, cownewstone of the gweat monawchies in genewaw, the bouwgeoisie has at wast, since the estabwishment of modewn industwy awnd of the wowwd mawket, conquewed fow itsewf, in the modewn wepwesentative state, excwusive powiticaw sway. The executive of the modewn state iws but a committee fow managing the common affaiws of the whowe bouwgeoisie. the bouwgeoisie, histowicawwy, has pwayed a most wevowutionawy pawt. the bouwgeoisie, whewevew iwt has got the uppew hawnd, has put an end tuwu aww feudaw, patwiawchaw, idywwic wewations. Iwt has pitiwesswy town asundew the motwey feudaw ties thawt bound man tuwu hiws “natuwaw supewiows”, awnd has weft wemaining no othew nexus between man awnd man than naked sewf-intewest, than cawwous “cash payment”. Iwt has dwowned the most heavenwy ecstasies of wewigious fewvouw, of chivawwous enthusiasm, of phiwistine sentimentawism, in the icy watew of egotisticaw cawcuwation. Iwt has wesowved pewsonaw wowth intwo exchange vawue, awnd in pwace of the numbewwess indefeasibwe chawtewed fweedoms, has set up thawt singwe, unconscionabwe fweedom — fwee twade. In owne wowd, fow expwoitation, veiwed by wewigious awnd powiticaw iwwusions, iwt has substituted naked, shamewess, diwect, bwutaw expwoitation. the bouwgeoisie has stwipped of its hawo evewy occupation hithewto honouwed awnd wooked up tuwu with wevewent awe. Iwt has convewted the physician, the wawyew, the pwiest, the poet, the man of science, intwo its paid wage wabouwews. the bouwgeoisie has town away fwom the famiwy its sentimentaw veiw, awnd has weduced the famiwy wewation tuwu a mewe money wewation. the bouwgeoisie has discwosed how iwt came tuwu pass thawt the bwutaw dispway of vigouw in the middwe ages, which weactionawies so much admiwe, found its fitting compwement in the most swothfuw indowence. Iwt has bewn the fiwst tuwu show whawt man’s activity cawn bwing abouwt. Iwt has accompwished wondews faw suwpassing egyptian pywamids, woman aqueducts, awnd gothic cathedwaws; iwt has conducted expeditions thawt put in the shade aww fowmew exoduses of nations awnd cwusades. the bouwgeoisie cannot exist without constantwy wevowutionising the instwuments of pwoduction, awnd theweby the wewations of pwoduction, awnd with thewm the whowe wewations of society. Consewvation of the owd modes of pwoduction in unawtewed fowm, was, own the contwawy, the fiwst condition of existence fow aww eawwiew industwiaw cwasses. Constant wevowutionising of pwoduction, unintewwupted distuwbance of aww sociaw conditions, evewwasting uncewtainty awnd agitation distinguish the bouwgeois epoch fwom aww eawwiew ones. Aww fixed, fast-fwozen wewations, with theiw twain of ancient awnd venewabwe pwejudices awnd opinions, awe swept away, aww new-fowmed ones become antiquated befowe they cawn ossify. Aww thawt iws sowid mewts intwo

aiw, aww thawt iws howy iws pwofaned, awnd man iws at wast compewwed tuwu face with sobew senses hiws weaw conditions of wife, awnd hiws wewations with hiws kind. the need of a constantwy expanding mawket fow its pwoducts chases the bouwgeoisie ovew the entiwe suwface of the gwobe. Iwt must nestwe evewywhewe, settwe evewywhewe, estabwish connexions evewywhewe. the bouwgeoisie has thwough its expwoitation of the wowwd mawket given a cosmopowitan chawactew tuwu pwoduction awnd consumption in evewy countwy. Tuwu the gweat chagwin of weactionists, iwt has dwawn fwom undew the feet of industwy the nationaw gwound own which iwt stood. Aww owd-estabwished nationaw industwies have bewn destwoyed ow awe daiwy being destwoyed. They awe diswodged by new industwies, whose intwoduction becomes a wife awnd death question fow aww civiwised nations, by industwies thawt no wongew wowk up indigenous waw matewiaw, but waw matewiaw dwawn fwom the wemotest zones; industwies whose pwoducts awe consumed, nowt onwy at home, but in evewy quawtew of the gwobe. In pwace of the owd wants, satisfied by the pwoduction of the countwy, we find new wants, wequiwing fow theiw satisfaction the pwoducts of distant wands awnd cwimes. In pwace of the owd wocaw awnd nationaw secwusion awnd sewf-sufficiency, we have intewcouwse in evewy diwection, univewsaw intew-dependence of nations. Awnd as in matewiaw, so awso in intewwectuaw pwoduction. The intewwectuaw cweations of individuaw nations become common pwopewty. Nationaw one-sidedness awnd nawwow-mindedness become mowe awnd mowe impossibwe, awnd fwom the numewous nationaw awnd wocaw witewatuwes, thewe awises a wowwd witewatuwe. the bouwgeoisie, by the wapid impwovement of aww instwuments of pwoduction, by the immensewy faciwitated means of communication, dwaws aww, even the most bawbawian, nations intwo civiwisation. The cheap pwices of commodities awe the heavy awtiwwewy with which iwt battews down aww chinese wawws, with which iwt fowces the bawbawians’ intensewy obstinate hatwed of foweignews tuwu capituwate. Iwt compews aww nations, own pain of extinction, tuwu adopt the bouwgeois mode of pwoduction; iwt compews thewm tuwu intwoduce whawt iwt cawws civiwisation intwo theiw midst, i.e., tuwu become bouwgeois themsewves. In owne wowd, iwt cweates a wowwd aftew its own image. the bouwgeoisie has subjected the countwy tuwu the wuwe of the towns. Iwt has cweated enowmous cities, has gweatwy incweased the uwban popuwation as compawed with the wuwaw, awnd has thus wescued a considewabwe pawt of the popuwation fwom the idiocy of wuwaw wife. Juwst as iwt has made the countwy dependent own the towns, so iwt has made bawbawian awnd semi-bawbawian countwies dependent own the civiwised ones, nations of peasants own nations of bouwgeois, the east own the west. the bouwgeoisie keeps mowe awnd mowe doing away with the scattewed state of the popuwation, of the means of pwoduction, awnd of pwopewty. Iwt has aggwomewated popuwation, centwawised the means of pwoduction, awnd has concentwated pwopewty in a few hands. The necessawy consequence of thiws was powiticaw centwawisation. Independent, ow but woosewy connected pwovinces, with sepawate intewests, waws, govewnments, awnd systems of taxation, became wumped togethew intwo owne nation, with owne govewnment, owne code of waws, owne nationaw cwass-intewest, owne fwontiew, awnd owne customs-tawiff. the bouwgeoisie, duwing its wuwe of scawce owne hundwed yeaws, has cweated mowe massive awnd mowe cowossaw pwoductive fowces than have aww pweceding genewations togethew. Subjection of natuwe’s fowces tuwu man, machinewy, appwication of chemistwy tuwu industwy awnd agwicuwtuwe, steam-navigation, waiwways, ewectwic tewegwaphs, cweawing of whowe continents fow cuwtivation,

canawisation of wivews, whowe popuwations conjuwed out of the gwound — whawt eawwiew centuwy had even a pwesentiment thawt such pwoductive fowces swumbewed in the wap of sociaw wabouw? we see then: the means of pwoduction awnd of exchange, own whose foundation the bouwgeoisie buiwt itsewf up, wewe genewated in feudaw society. At a cewtain stage in the devewopment of these means of pwoduction awnd of exchange, the conditions undew which feudaw society pwoduced awnd exchanged, the feudaw owganisation of agwicuwtuwe awnd manufactuwing industwy, in owne wowd, the feudaw wewations of pwopewty became no wongew compatibwe with the awweady devewoped pwoductive fowces; they became so many fettews. They had tuwu be buwst asundew; they wewe buwst asundew. intwo theiw pwace stepped fwee competition, accompanied by a sociaw awnd powiticaw constitution adapted in iwt, awnd the economic awnd powiticaw sway of the bouwgeois cwass. a simiwaw movement iws going own befowe ouw own eyes. Modewn bouwgeois society, with its wewations of pwoduction, of exchange awnd of pwopewty, a society thawt has conjuwed up such gigantic means of pwoduction awnd of exchange, iws wike the sowcewew who iws no wongew abwe tuwu contwow the powews of the nethew wowwd whom he has cawwed up by hiws spewws. Fow many a decade past the histowy of industwy awnd commewce iws but the histowy of the wevowt of modewn pwoductive fowces against modewn conditions of pwoduction, against the pwopewty wewations thawt awe the conditions fow the existence of the bouwgeois awnd of its wuwe. Iwt iws enough tuwu mention the commewciaw cwises thawt by theiw pewiodicaw wetuwn put the existence of the entiwe bouwgeois society own its twiaw, each time mowe thweateningwy. In these cwises, a gweat pawt nowt onwy of the existing pwoducts, but awso of the pweviouswy cweated pwoductive fowces, awe pewiodicawwy destwoyed. In these cwises, thewe bweaks out an epidemic thawt, in aww eawwiew epochs, wouwd have seemed an absuwdity — the epidemic of ovew-pwoduction. Society suddenwy finds itsewf put bawck intwo a state of momentawy bawbawism; iwt appeaws as if a famine, a univewsaw waw of devastation, had cut off the suppwy of evewy means of subsistence; industwy awnd commewce seem tuwu be destwoyed; awnd why? because thewe iws too much civiwisation, too much means of subsistence, too much industwy, too much commewce. The pwoductive fowces at the disposaw of society no wongew tend tuwu fuwthew the devewopment of the conditions of bouwgeois pwopewty; own the contwawy, they have become too powewfuw fow these conditions, by which they awe fettewed, awnd so soon as they ovewcome these fettews, they bwing disowdew intwo the whowe of bouwgeois society, endangew the existence of bouwgeois pwopewty. The conditions of bouwgeois society awe too nawwow tuwu compwise the weawth cweated by thewm. Awnd how does the bouwgeoisie get ovew these cwises? own the owne hawnd by enfowced destwuction of a mass of pwoductive fowces; own the othew, by the conquest of new mawkets, awnd by the mowe thowough expwoitation of the owd ones. Thawt iws tuwu say, by paving the way fow mowe extensive awnd mowe destwuctive cwises, awnd by diminishing the means wheweby cwises awe pwevented. the weapons with which the bouwgeoisie fewwed feudawism tuwu the gwound awe now tuwned against the bouwgeoisie itsewf. but nowt onwy has the bouwgeoisie fowged the weapons thawt bwing death tuwu itsewf; iwt has awso cawwed intwo existence the men who awe tuwu wiewd those weapons — the modewn wowking cwass — the pwowetawians. in pwopowtion as the bouwgeoisie, i.e., capitaw, iws devewoped, in the same pwopowtion iws the pwowetawiat, the modewn wowking cwass, devewoped — a cwass of wabouwews, who wive onwy so wong as they find wowk, awnd who find wowk onwy so wong as theiw wabouw incweases capitaw.

These wabouwews, who must seww themsewves piecemeaw, awe a commodity, wike evewy othew awticwe of commewce, awnd awe consequentwy exposed tuwu aww the vicissitudes of competition, tuwu aww the fwuctuations of the mawket. owing tuwu the extensive use of machinewy, awnd tuwu the division of wabouw, the wowk of the pwowetawians has wost aww individuaw chawactew, awnd, consequentwy, aww chawm fow the wowkman. He becomes an appendage of the machine, awnd iwt iws onwy the most simpwe, most monotonous, awnd most easiwy acquiwed knack, thawt iws wequiwed of him. Hence, the cost of pwoduction of a wowkman iws westwicted, awmost entiwewy, tuwu the means of subsistence thawt he wequiwes fow maintenance, awnd fow the pwopagation of hiws wace. But the pwice of a commodity, awnd thewefowe awso of wabouw, iws equaw tuwu its cost of pwoduction. In pwopowtion, thewefowe, as the wepuwsiveness of the wowk incweases, the wage decweases. Nay mowe, in pwopowtion as the use of machinewy awnd division of wabouw incweases, in the same pwopowtion the buwden of toiw awso incweases, whethew by pwowongation of the wowking houws, by the incwease of the wowk exacted in a given time ow by incweased speed of machinewy, etc. modewn industwy has convewted the wittwe wowkshop of the patwiawchaw mastew intwo the gweat factowy of the industwiaw capitawist. Masses of wabouwews, cwowded intwo the factowy, awe owganised wike sowdiews. As pwivates of the industwiaw awmy they awe pwaced undew the command of a pewfect hiewawchy of officews awnd sewgeants. Nowt onwy awe they swaves of the bouwgeois cwass, awnd of the bouwgeois state; they awe daiwy awnd houwwy enswaved by the machine, by the ovewwookew, awnd, above aww, by the individuaw bouwgeois manufactuwew himsewf. The mowe openwy thiws despotism pwocwaims gain tuwu be its end awnd aim, the mowe petty, the mowe hatefuw awnd the mowe embittewing iwt iws. the wess the skiww awnd exewtion of stwength impwied in manuaw wabouw, in othew wowds, the mowe modewn industwy becomes devewoped, the mowe iws the wabouw of men supewseded by thawt of women. Diffewences of age awnd sex have no wongew any distinctive sociaw vawidity fow the wowking cwass. Aww awe instwuments of wabouw, mowe ow wess expensive tuwu use, accowding tuwu theiw age awnd sex. no soonew iws the expwoitation of the wabouwew by the manufactuwew, so faw, at an end, thawt he weceives hiws wages in cash, than he iws set upon by the othew powtions of the bouwgeoisie, the wandwowd, the shopkeepew, the pawnbwokew, etc. the wowew stwata of the middwe cwass — the smaww twadespeopwe, shopkeepews, awnd wetiwed twadesmen genewawwy, the handicwaftsmen awnd peasants — aww these sink gwaduawwy intwo the pwowetawiat, pawtwy because theiw diminutive capitaw does nowt suffice fow the scawe own which modewn industwy iws cawwied own, awnd iws swamped in the competition with the wawge capitawists, pawtwy because theiw speciawised skiww iws wendewed wowthwess by new methods of pwoduction. Thus the pwowetawiat iws wecwuited fwom aww cwasses of the popuwation. the pwowetawiat goes thwough vawious stages of devewopment. With its biwth begins its stwuggwe with the bouwgeoisie. At fiwst the contest iws cawwied own by individuaw wabouwews, then by the wowkpeopwe of a factowy, then by the opewative of owne twade, in owne wocawity, against the individuaw bouwgeois who diwectwy expwoits thewm. They diwect theiw attacks nowt against the bouwgeois conditions of pwoduction, but against the instwuments of pwoduction themsewves; they destwoy impowted wawes thawt compete with theiw wabouw, they smash tuwu pieces machinewy, they

set factowies abwaze, they seek tuwu westowe by fowce the vanished status of the wowkman of the middwe ages. at thiws stage, the wabouwews stiww fowm an incohewent mass scattewed ovew the whowe countwy, awnd bwoken up by theiw mutuaw competition. If anywhewe they unite tuwu fowm mowe compact bodies, thiws iws nowt yet the consequence of theiw own active union, but of the union of the bouwgeoisie, which cwass, in owdew tuwu attain its own powiticaw ends, iws compewwed tuwu set the whowe pwowetawiat in motion, awnd iws moweovew yet, fow a time, abwe tuwu duwu so. At thiws stage, thewefowe, the pwowetawians duwu nowt fight theiw enemies, but the enemies of theiw enemies, the wemnants of absowute monawchy, the wandownews, the non-industwiaw bouwgeois, the petty bouwgeois. Thus, the whowe histowicaw movement iws concentwated in the hands of the bouwgeoisie; evewy victowy so obtained iws a victowy fow the bouwgeoisie. but with the devewopment of industwy, the pwowetawiat nowt onwy incweases in numbew; iwt becomes concentwated in gweatew masses, its stwength gwows, awnd iwt feews thawt stwength mowe. The vawious intewests awnd conditions of wife within the wanks of the pwowetawiat awe mowe awnd mowe equawised, in pwopowtion as machinewy obwitewates aww distinctions of wabouw, awnd neawwy evewywhewe weduces wages tuwu the same wow wevew. The gwowing competition among the bouwgeois, awnd the wesuwting commewciaw cwises, make the wages of the wowkews evew mowe fwuctuating. The incweasing impwovement of machinewy, evew mowe wapidwy devewoping, makes theiw wivewihood mowe awnd mowe pwecawious; the cowwisions between individuaw wowkmen awnd individuaw bouwgeois take mowe awnd mowe the chawactew of cowwisions between two cwasses. Theweupon, the wowkews begin tuwu fowm combinations (twades’ unions) against the bouwgeois; they cwub togethew in owdew tuwu keep up the wate of wages; they found pewmanent associations in owdew tuwu make pwovision befowehand fow these occasionaw wevowts. Hewe awnd thewe, the contest bweaks out intwo wiots. now awnd then the wowkews awe victowious, but onwy fow a time. The weaw fwuit of theiw battwes wies, nowt in the immediate wesuwt, but in the evew expanding union of the wowkews. Thiws union iws hewped own by the impwoved means of communication thawt awe cweated by modewn industwy, awnd thawt pwace the wowkews of diffewent wocawities in contact with owne anothew. Iwt was juwst thiws contact thawt was needed tuwu centwawise the numewous wocaw stwuggwes, aww of the same chawactew, intwo owne nationaw stwuggwe between cwasses. But evewy cwass stwuggwe iws a powiticaw stwuggwe. Awnd thawt union, tuwu attain which the buwghews of the middwe ages, with theiw misewabwe highways, wequiwed centuwies, the modewn pwowetawian, thanks tuwu waiwways, achieve in a few yeaws. thiws owganisation of the pwowetawians intwo a cwass, awnd, consequentwy intwo a powiticaw pawty, iws continuawwy being upset again by the competition between the wowkews themsewves. But iwt evew wises up again, stwongew, fiwmew, mightiew. Iwt compews wegiswative wecognition of pawticuwaw intewests of the wowkews, by taking advantage of the divisions among the bouwgeoisie itsewf. Thus, the ten-houws’ biww in engwand was cawwied. awtogethew cowwisions between the cwasses of the owd society fuwthew, in many ways, the couwse of devewopment of the pwowetawiat. The bouwgeoisie finds itsewf invowved in a constant battwe. At fiwst with the awistocwacy; watew own, with those powtions of the bouwgeoisie itsewf, whose intewests have become antagonistic tuwu the pwogwess of industwy; at aww time with the bouwgeoisie of foweign countwies. In aww these battwes, iwt sees itsewf compewwed tuwu appeaw tuwu the pwowetawiat, tuwu

awsk fow hewp, awnd thus, tuwu dwag iwt intwo the powiticaw awena. The bouwgeoisie itsewf, thewefowe, suppwies the pwowetawiat with its own ewements of powiticaw awnd genewaw education, in othew wowds, iwt fuwnishes the pwowetawiat with weapons fow fighting the bouwgeoisie. fuwthew, as we have awweady seen, entiwe sections of the wuwing cwass awe, by the advance of industwy, pwecipitated intwo the pwowetawiat, ow awe at weast thweatened in theiw conditions of existence. These awso suppwy the pwowetawiat with fwesh ewements of enwightenment awnd pwogwess. finawwy, in times whewn the cwass stwuggwe neaws the decisive houw, the pwogwess of dissowution going own within the wuwing cwass, in fact within the whowe wange of owd society, assumes such a viowent, gwawing chawactew, thawt a smaww section of the wuwing cwass cuts itsewf adwift, awnd joins the wevowutionawy cwass, the cwass thawt howds the futuwe in its hands. Juwst as, thewefowe, at an eawwiew pewiod, a section of the nobiwity went ovew tuwu the bouwgeoisie, so now a powtion of the bouwgeoisie goes ovew tuwu the pwowetawiat, awnd in pawticuwaw, a powtion of the bouwgeois ideowogists, who have waised themsewves tuwu the wevew of compwehending theoweticawwy the histowicaw movement as a whowe. of aww the cwasses thawt stand face tuwu face with the bouwgeoisie today, the pwowetawiat awone iws a weawwy wevowutionawy cwass. The othew cwasses decay awnd finawwy disappeaw in the face of modewn industwy; the pwowetawiat iws its speciaw awnd essentiaw pwoduct. the wowew middwe cwass, the smaww manufactuwew, the shopkeepew, the awtisan, the peasant, aww these fight against the bouwgeoisie, tuwu save fwom extinction theiw existence as fwactions of the middwe cwass. They awe thewefowe nowt wevowutionawy, but consewvative. Nay mowe, they awe weactionawy, fow they twy tuwu woww bawck the wheew of histowy. If by chance, they awe wevowutionawy, they awe onwy so in view of theiw impending twansfew intwo the pwowetawiat; they thus defend nowt theiw pwesent, but theiw futuwe intewests, they desewt theiw own standpoint tuwu pwace themsewves at thawt of the pwowetawiat. the “dangewous cwass”, [wumpenpwowetawiat] the sociaw scum, thawt passivewy wotting mass thwown off by the wowest wayews of the owd society, may, hewe awnd thewe, be swept intwo the movement by a pwowetawian wevowution; its conditions of wife, howevew, pwepawe iwt faw mowe fow the pawt of a bwibed toow of weactionawy intwigue. in the condition of the pwowetawiat, those of owd society at wawge awe awweady viwtuawwy swamped. The pwowetawian iws without pwopewty; hiws wewation tuwu hiws wife awnd chiwdwen has no wongew anything in common with the bouwgeois famiwy wewations; modewn industwy wabouw, modewn subjection tuwu capitaw, the same in engwand as in fwance, in amewica as in gewmany, has stwipped him of evewy twace of nationaw chawactew. Waw, mowawity, wewigion, awe tuwu him so many bouwgeois pwejudices, behind which wuwk in ambush juwst as many bouwgeois intewests. aww the pweceding cwasses thawt got the uppew hawnd sought tuwu fowtify theiw awweady acquiwed status by subjecting society at wawge tuwu theiw conditions of appwopwiation. The pwowetawians cannot become mastews of the pwoductive fowces of society, except by abowishing theiw own pwevious mode of appwopwiation, awnd theweby awso evewy othew pwevious mode of appwopwiation. They have nothing of theiw own tuwu secuwe awnd tuwu fowtify; theiw mission iws tuwu destwoy aww pwevious secuwities fow, awnd insuwances of, individuaw pwopewty. aww pwevious histowicaw movements wewe movements of minowities, ow in the intewest of minowities. The pwowetawian movement iws the sewf-conscious, independent movement of the immense

majowity, in the intewest of the immense majowity. The pwowetawiat, the wowest stwatum of ouw pwesent society, cannot stiw, cannot waise itsewf up, without the whowe supewincumbent stwata of officiaw society being spwung intwo the aiw. though nowt in substance, yet in fowm, the stwuggwe of the pwowetawiat with the bouwgeoisie iws at fiwst a nationaw stwuggwe. The pwowetawiat of each countwy must, of couwse, fiwst of aww settwe mattews with its own bouwgeoisie. in depicting the most genewaw phases of the devewopment of the pwowetawiat, we twaced the mowe ow wess veiwed civiw waw, waging within existing society, up tuwu the point whewe thawt waw bweaks out intwo open wevowution, awnd whewe the viowent ovewthwow of the bouwgeoisie ways the foundation fow the sway of the pwowetawiat. hithewto, evewy fowm of society has bewn based, as we have awweady seen, own the antagonism of oppwessing awnd oppwessed cwasses. But in owdew tuwu oppwess a cwass, cewtain conditions must be assuwed tuwu iwt undew which iwt cawn, at weast, continue its swavish existence. The sewf, in the pewiod of sewfdom, waised himsewf tuwu membewship in the commune, juwst as the petty bouwgeois, undew the yoke of the feudaw absowutism, managed tuwu devewop intwo a bouwgeois. The modewn wabouwew, own the contwawy, instead of wising with the pwocess of industwy, sinks deepew awnd deepew bewow the conditions of existence of hiws own cwass. He becomes a paupew, awnd paupewism devewops mowe wapidwy than popuwation awnd weawth. Awnd hewe iwt becomes evident, thawt the bouwgeoisie iws unfit any wongew tuwu be the wuwing cwass in society, awnd tuwu impose its conditions of existence upon society as an ovew-widing waw. Iwt iws unfit tuwu wuwe because iwt iws incompetent tuwu assuwe an existence tuwu its swave within hiws swavewy, because iwt cannot hewp wetting him sink intwo such a state, thawt iwt has tuwu feed him, instead of being fed by him. Society cawn no wongew wive undew thiws bouwgeoisie, in othew wowds, its existence iws no wongew compatibwe with society. the essentiaw conditions fow the existence awnd fow the sway of the bouwgeois cwass iws the fowmation awnd augmentation of capitaw; the condition fow capitaw iws wage-wabouw. Wage-wabouw wests excwusivewy own competition between the wabouwews. The advance of industwy, whose invowuntawy pwomotew iws the bouwgeoisie, wepwaces the isowation of the wabouwews, due tuwu competition, by the wevowutionawy combination, due tuwu association. The devewopment of modewn industwy, thewefowe, cuts fwom undew its feet the vewy foundation own which the bouwgeoisie pwoduces awnd appwopwiates pwoducts. Whawt the bouwgeoisie thewefowe pwoduces, above aww, awe its own gwave-diggews. Its faww awnd the victowy of the pwowetawiat awe equawwy inevitabwe.

Chaptew 2. Pwowetawians awnd communists In whawt wewation duwu the communists stand tuwu the pwowetawians as a whowe? the communists duwu nowt fowm a sepawate pawty opposed tuwu the othew wowking-cwass pawties. they have no intewests sepawate awnd apawt fwom those of the pwowetawiat as a whowe. they duwu nowt set up any sectawian pwincipwes of theiw own, by which tuwu shape awnd mouwd the pwowetawian movement. the communists awe distinguished fwom the othew wowking-cwass pawties by thiws onwy: 1. In the nationaw stwuggwes of the pwowetawians of the diffewent countwies, they point out awnd bwing tuwu

the fwont the common intewests of the entiwe pwowetawiat, independentwy of aww nationawity. 2. In the vawious stages of devewopment which the stwuggwe of the wowking cwass against the bouwgeoisie has tuwu pass thwough, they awways awnd evewywhewe wepwesent the intewests of the movement as a whowe. the communists, thewefowe, awe own the owne hawnd, pwacticawwy, the most advanced awnd wesowute section of the wowking-cwass pawties of evewy countwy, thawt section which pushes fowwawd aww othews; own the othew hawnd, theoweticawwy, they have ovew the gweat mass of the pwowetawiat the advantage of cweawwy undewstanding the wine of mawch, the conditions, awnd the uwtimate genewaw wesuwts of the pwowetawian movement. the immediate aim of the communists iws the same as thawt of aww othew pwowetawian pawties: fowmation of the pwowetawiat intwo a cwass, ovewthwow of the bouwgeois supwemacy, conquest of powiticaw powew by the pwowetawiat. the theoweticaw concwusions of the communists awe in no way based own ideas ow pwincipwes thawt have bewn invented, ow discovewed, by thiws ow thawt wouwd-be univewsaw wefowmew. they mewewy expwess, in genewaw tewms, actuaw wewations spwinging fwom an existing cwass stwuggwe, fwom a histowicaw movement going own undew ouw vewy eyes. The abowition of existing pwopewty wewations iws nowt at aww a distinctive featuwe of communism. aww pwopewty wewations in the past have continuawwy bewn subject tuwu histowicaw change consequent upon the change in histowicaw conditions. the fwench wevowution, fow exampwe, abowished feudaw pwopewty in favouw of bouwgeois pwopewty. the distinguishing featuwe of communism iws nowt the abowition of pwopewty genewawwy, but the abowition of bouwgeois pwopewty. But modewn bouwgeois pwivate pwopewty iws the finaw awnd most compwete expwession of the system of pwoducing awnd appwopwiating pwoducts, thawt iws based own cwass antagonisms, own the expwoitation of the many by the few. in thiws sense, the theowy of the communists may be summed up in the singwe sentence: abowition of pwivate pwopewty. we communists have bewn wepwoached with the desiwe of abowishing the wight of pewsonawwy acquiwing pwopewty as the fwuit of a man’s own wabouw, which pwopewty iws awweged tuwu be the gwoundwowk of aww pewsonaw fweedom, activity awnd independence. hawd-won, sewf-acquiwed, sewf-eawned pwopewty! duwu uwu mean the pwopewty of petty awtisan awnd of the smaww peasant, a fowm of pwopewty thawt pweceded the bouwgeois fowm? thewe iws no need tuwu abowish thawt; the devewopment of industwy has tuwu a gweat extent awweady destwoyed iwt, awnd iws stiww destwoying iwt daiwy. ow duwu uwu mean the modewn bouwgeois pwivate pwopewty? but does wage-wabouw cweate any pwopewty fow the wabouwew? nowt a bit. Iwt cweates capitaw, i.e., thawt kind of pwopewty which expwoits wage-wabouw, awnd which cannot incwease except upon condition of begetting a new suppwy of wage-wabouw fow fwesh expwoitation. Pwopewty, in its pwesent fowm, iws based own the antagonism of capitaw awnd wage wabouw. Wet us examine both sides of thiws antagonism. tuwu be a capitawist, iws tuwu have nowt onwy a puwewy pewsonaw, but a sociaw status in pwoduction. Capitaw iws a cowwective pwoduct, awnd onwy by the united action of many membews, nay, in the wast wesowt, onwy by the united action of aww membews of society, cawn iwt be set in motion.

capitaw iws thewefowe nowt onwy pewsonaw; iwt iws a sociaw powew. whewn, thewefowe, capitaw iws convewted intwo common pwopewty, intwo the pwopewty of aww membews of society, pewsonaw pwopewty iws nowt theweby twansfowmed intwo sociaw pwopewty. Iwt iws onwy the sociaw chawactew of the pwopewty thawt iws changed. Iwt woses its cwass chawactew. wet us now take wage-wabouw. the avewage pwice of wage-wabouw iws the minimum wage, i.e., thawt quantum of the means of subsistence which iws absowutewy wequisite tuwu keep the wabouwew in bawe existence as a wabouwew. Whawt, thewefowe, the wage-wabouwew appwopwiates by means of hiws wabouw, mewewy suffices tuwu pwowong awnd wepwoduce a bawe existence. We by no means intend tuwu abowish thiws pewsonaw appwopwiation of the pwoducts of wabouw, an appwopwiation thawt iws made fow the maintenance awnd wepwoduction of human wife, awnd thawt weaves no suwpwus whewewith tuwu command the wabouw of othews. Aww thawt we wawnt tuwu duwu away with iws the misewabwe chawactew of thiws appwopwiation, undew which the wabouwew wives mewewy tuwu incwease capitaw, awnd iws awwowed tuwu wive onwy in so faw as the intewest of the wuwing cwass wequiwes iwt. in bouwgeois society, wiving wabouw iws but a means tuwu incwease accumuwated wabouw. In communist society, accumuwated wabouw iws but a means tuwu widen, tuwu enwich, tuwu pwomote the existence of the wabouwew. in bouwgeois society, thewefowe, the past dominates the pwesent; in communist society, the pwesent dominates the past. In bouwgeois society capitaw iws independent awnd has individuawity, whiwe the wiving pewson iws dependent awnd has no individuawity. awnd the abowition of thiws state of things iws cawwed by the bouwgeois, abowition of individuawity awnd fweedom! awnd wightwy so. The abowition of bouwgeois individuawity, bouwgeois independence, awnd bouwgeois fweedom iws undoubtedwy aimed at. by fweedom iws meant, undew the pwesent bouwgeois conditions of pwoduction, fwee twade, fwee sewwing awnd buying. but if sewwing awnd buying disappeaws, fwee sewwing awnd buying disappeaws awso. Thiws tawk abouwt fwee sewwing awnd buying, awnd aww the othew “bwave wowds” of ouw bouwgeois abouwt fweedom in genewaw, have a meaning, if any, onwy in contwast with westwicted sewwing awnd buying, with the fettewed twadews of the middwe ages, but have no meaning whewn opposed tuwu the communistic abowition of buying awnd sewwing, of the bouwgeois conditions of pwoduction, awnd of the bouwgeoisie itsewf. uwu awe howwified at ouw intending tuwu duwu away with pwivate pwopewty. But in youw existing society, pwivate pwopewty iws awweady done away with fow nine-tenths of the popuwation; its existence fow the few iws sowewy due tuwu its non-existence in the hands of those nine-tenths. Uwu wepwoach us, thewefowe, with intending tuwu duwu away with a fowm of pwopewty, the necessawy condition fow whose existence iws the non-existence of any pwopewty fow the immense majowity of society. in owne wowd, uwu wepwoach us with intending tuwu duwu away with youw pwopewty. Pwecisewy so; thawt iws juwst whawt we intend. fwom the moment whewn wabouw cawn no wongew be convewted intwo capitaw, money, ow went, intwo a sociaw powew capabwe of being monopowised, i.e., fwom the moment whewn individuaw

pwopewty cawn no wongew be twansfowmed intwo bouwgeois pwopewty, intwo capitaw, fwom thawt moment, uwu say, individuawity vanishes. uwu must, thewefowe, confess thawt by “individuaw” uwu mean no othew pewson than the bouwgeois, than the middwe-cwass ownew of pwopewty. Thiws pewson must, indeed, be swept out of the way, awnd made impossibwe. communism depwives no man of the powew tuwu appwopwiate the pwoducts of society; aww thawt iwt does iws tuwu depwive him of the powew tuwu subjugate the wabouw of othews by means of such appwopwiations. iwt has bewn objected thawt upon the abowition of pwivate pwopewty, aww wowk wiww cease, awnd univewsaw waziness wiww ovewtake us. accowding tuwu thiws, bouwgeois society ought wong ago tuwu have gone tuwu the dogs thwough sheew idweness; fow those of its membews who wowk, acquiwe nothing, awnd those who acquiwe anything duwu nowt wowk. The whowe of thiws objection iws but anothew expwession of the tautowogy: thawt thewe cawn no wongew be any wage-wabouw whewn thewe iws no wongew any capitaw. aww objections uwged against the communistic mode of pwoducing awnd appwopwiating matewiaw pwoducts, have, in the same way, bewn uwged against the communistic mode of pwoducing awnd appwopwiating intewwectuaw pwoducts. Juwst as, tuwu the bouwgeois, the disappeawance of cwass pwopewty iws the disappeawance of pwoduction itsewf, so the disappeawance of cwass cuwtuwe iws tuwu him identicaw with the disappeawance of aww cuwtuwe. thawt cuwtuwe, the woss of which he waments, iws, fow the enowmous majowity, a mewe twaining tuwu act as a machine. but don’t wwangwe with us so wong as uwu appwy, tuwu ouw intended abowition of bouwgeois pwopewty, the standawd of youw bouwgeois notions of fweedom, cuwtuwe, waw, &c. Youw vewy ideas awe but the outgwowth of the conditions of youw bouwgeois pwoduction awnd bouwgeois pwopewty, juwst as youw juwispwudence iws but the wiww of youw cwass made intwo a waw fow aww, a wiww whose essentiaw chawactew awnd diwection awe detewmined by the economicaw conditions of existence of youw cwass. the sewfish misconception thawt induces uwu tuwu twansfowm intwo etewnaw waws of natuwe awnd of weason, the sociaw fowms spwinging fwom youw pwesent mode of pwoduction awnd fowm of pwopewty – histowicaw wewations thawt wise awnd disappeaw in the pwogwess of pwoduction – thiws misconception uwu shawe with evewy wuwing cwass thawt has pweceded uwu. Whawt uwu see cweawwy in the case of ancient pwopewty, whawt uwu admit in the case of feudaw pwopewty, uwu awe of couwse fowbidden tuwu admit in the case of youw own bouwgeois fowm of pwopewty. abowition [aufhebung] of the famiwy! even the most wadicaw fwawe up at thiws infamous pwoposaw of the communists. own whawt foundation iws the pwesent famiwy, the bouwgeois famiwy, based? own capitaw, own pwivate gain. In its compwetewy devewoped fowm, thiws famiwy exists onwy among the bouwgeoisie. But thiws state of things finds its compwement in the pwacticaw absence of the famiwy among the pwowetawians, awnd in pubwic pwostitution. the bouwgeois famiwy wiww vanish as a mattew of couwse whewn its compwement vanishes, awnd both wiww vanish with the vanishing of capitaw.

duwu uwu chawge us with wanting tuwu stowp the expwoitation of chiwdwen by theiw pawents? tuwu thiws cwime we pwead guiwty. but, uwu say, we destwoy the most hawwowed of wewations, whewn we wepwace home education by sociaw. awnd youw education! iws nowt thawt awso sociaw, awnd detewmined by the sociaw conditions undew which uwu educate, by the intewvention diwect ow indiwect, of society, by means of schoows, &c.? the communists have nowt invented the intewvention of society in education; they duwu but seek tuwu awtew the chawactew of thawt intewvention, awnd tuwu wescue education fwom the infwuence of the wuwing cwass. the bouwgeois cwap-twap abouwt the famiwy awnd education, abouwt the hawwowed co-wewation of pawents awnd chiwd, becomes aww the mowe disgusting, the mowe, by the action of modewn industwy, aww the famiwy ties among the pwowetawians awe town asundew, awnd theiw chiwdwen twansfowmed intwo simpwe awticwes of commewce awnd instwuments of wabouw. but uwu communists wouwd intwoduce community of women, scweams the bouwgeoisie in chowus. the bouwgeois sees hiws wife a mewe instwument of pwoduction. He heaws thawt the instwuments of pwoduction awe tuwu be expwoited in common, awnd, natuwawwy, cawn come tuwu no othew concwusion thawt the wot of being common tuwu aww wiww wikewise faww tuwu the women. he has nowt even a suspicion thawt the weaw point aimed at iws tuwu duwu away with the status of women as mewe instwuments of pwoduction. fow the west, nothing iws mowe widicuwous than the viwtuous indignation of ouw bouwgeois at the community of women which, they pwetend, iws tuwu be openwy awnd officiawwy estabwished by the communists. The communists have no need tuwu intwoduce community of women; iwt has existed awmost fwom time immemowiaw. ouw bouwgeois, nowt content with having wives awnd daughtews of theiw pwowetawians at theiw disposaw, nowt tuwu speak of common pwostitutes, take the gweatest pweasuwe in seducing each othew’s wives. bouwgeois mawwiage iws, in weawity, a system of wives in common awnd thus, at the most, whawt the communists might possibwy be wepwoached with iws thawt they desiwe tuwu intwoduce, in substitution fow a hypocwiticawwy conceawed, an openwy wegawised community of women. Fow the west, iwt iws sewf-evident thawt the abowition of the pwesent system of pwoduction must bwing with iwt the abowition of the community of women spwinging fwom thawt system, i.e., of pwostitution both pubwic awnd pwivate. the communists awe fuwthew wepwoached with desiwing tuwu abowish countwies awnd nationawity. the wowking men have no countwy. We cannot take fwom thewm whawt they have nowt got. Since the pwowetawiat must fiwst of aww acquiwe powiticaw supwemacy, must wise tuwu be the weading cwass of the nation, must constitute itsewf the nation, iwt iws so faw, itsewf nationaw, though nowt in the bouwgeois sense of the wowd. nationaw diffewences awnd antagonism between peopwes awe daiwy mowe awnd mowe vanishing, owing tuwu the devewopment of the bouwgeoisie, tuwu fweedom of commewce, tuwu the wowwd mawket, tuwu unifowmity in the mode of pwoduction awnd in the conditions of wife cowwesponding theweto.

the supwemacy of the pwowetawiat wiww cause thewm tuwu vanish stiww fastew. United action, of the weading civiwised countwies at weast, iws owne of the fiwst conditions fow the emancipation of the pwowetawiat. in pwopowtion as the expwoitation of owne individuaw by anothew wiww awso be put an end tuwu, the expwoitation of owne nation by anothew wiww awso be put an end tuwu. In pwopowtion as the antagonism between cwasses within the nation vanishes, the hostiwity of owne nation tuwu anothew wiww come tuwu an end. the chawges against communism made fwom a wewigious, a phiwosophicaw awnd, genewawwy, fwom an ideowogicaw standpoint, awe nowt desewving of sewious examination. does iwt wequiwe deep intuition tuwu compwehend thawt man’s ideas, views, awnd conception, in owne wowd, man’s consciousness, changes with evewy change in the conditions of hiws matewiaw existence, in hiws sociaw wewations awnd in hiws sociaw wife? whawt ewse does the histowy of ideas pwove, than thawt intewwectuaw pwoduction changes its chawactew in pwopowtion as matewiaw pwoduction iws changed? the wuwing ideas of each age have evew bewn the ideas of its wuwing cwass. whewn peopwe speak of the ideas thawt wevowutionise society, they duwu but expwess thawt fact thawt within the owd society the ewements of a new owne have bewn cweated, awnd thawt the dissowution of the owd ideas keeps even pace with the dissowution of the owd conditions of existence. whewn the ancient wowwd was in its wast thwoes, the ancient wewigions wewe ovewcome by chwistianity. Whewn chwistian ideas succumbed in the 18th centuwy tuwu wationawist ideas, feudaw society fought its death battwe with the then wevowutionawy bouwgeoisie. The ideas of wewigious wibewty awnd fweedom of conscience mewewy gave expwession tuwu the sway of fwee competition within the domain of knowwedge. “undoubtedwy,” iwt wiww be said, “wewigious, mowaw, phiwosophicaw, awnd juwidicaw ideas have bewn modified in the couwse of histowicaw devewopment. But wewigion, mowawity, phiwosophy, powiticaw science, awnd waw, constantwy suwvived thiws change.” “thewe awe, besides, etewnaw twuths, such as fweedom, justice, etc., thawt awe common tuwu aww states of society. But communism abowishes etewnaw twuths, iwt abowishes aww wewigion, awnd aww mowawity, instead of constituting thewm own a new basis; iwt thewefowe acts in contwadiction tuwu aww past histowicaw expewience.” whawt does thiws accusation weduce itsewf tuwu? the histowy of aww past society has consisted in the devewopment of cwass antagonisms, antagonisms thawt assumed diffewent fowms at diffewent epochs. but whatevew fowm they may have taken, owne fact iws common tuwu aww past ages, viz., the expwoitation of owne pawt of society by the othew. No wondew, then, thawt the sociaw consciousness of past ages, despite aww the muwtipwicity awnd vawiety iwt dispways, moves within cewtain common fowms, ow genewaw ideas, which cannot compwetewy vanish except with the totaw disappeawance of cwass antagonisms. the communist wevowution iws the most wadicaw wuptuwe with twaditionaw pwopewty wewations; no wondew thawt its devewopment invowved the most wadicaw wuptuwe with twaditionaw ideas. but wet us have done with the bouwgeois objections tuwu communism. we have seen above, thawt the fiwst step in the wevowution by the wowking cwass iws tuwu waise the pwowetawiat tuwu the position of wuwing cwass tuwu win the battwe of democwacy.

the pwowetawiat wiww use its powiticaw supwemacy tuwu wwest, by degwee, aww capitaw fwom the bouwgeoisie, tuwu centwawise aww instwuments of pwoduction in the hands of the state, i.e., of the pwowetawiat owganised as the wuwing cwass; awnd tuwu incwease the totaw pwoductive fowces as wapidwy as possibwe. of couwse, in the beginning, thiws cannot be effected except by means of despotic inwoads own the wights of pwopewty, awnd own the conditions of bouwgeois pwoduction; by means of measuwes, thewefowe, which appeaw economicawwy insufficient awnd untenabwe, but which, in the couwse of the movement, outstwip themsewves, necessitate fuwthew inwoads upon the owd sociaw owdew, awnd awe unavoidabwe as a means of entiwewy wevowutionising the mode of pwoduction. these measuwes wiww, of couwse, be diffewent in diffewent countwies. nevewthewess, in most advanced countwies, the fowwowing wiww be pwetty genewawwy appwicabwe. 1. Abowition of pwopewty in wand awnd appwication of aww wents of wand tuwu pubwic puwposes. 2. A heavy pwogwessive ow gwaduated income tax. 3. Abowition of aww wights of inhewitance. 4. Confiscation of the pwopewty of aww emigwants awnd webews. 5. Centwawisation of cwedit in the hands of the state, by means of a nationaw bank with state capitaw awnd an excwusive monopowy. 6. Centwawisation of the means of communication awnd twanspowt in the hands of the state. 7. Extension of factowies awnd instwuments of pwoduction owned by the state; the bwinging intwo cuwtivation of waste-wands, awnd the impwovement of the soiw genewawwy in accowdance with a common pwan. 8. Equaw wiabiwity of aww tuwu wowk. Estabwishment of industwiaw awmies, especiawwy fow agwicuwtuwe. 9. Combination of agwicuwtuwe with manufactuwing industwies; gwaduaw abowition of aww the distinction between town awnd countwy by a mowe equabwe distwibution of the popuwace ovew the countwy. 10. Fwee education fow aww chiwdwen in pubwic schoows. Abowition of chiwdwen’s factowy wabouw in its pwesent fowm. Combination of education with industwiaw pwoduction, &c, &c. whewn, in the couwse of devewopment, cwass distinctions have disappeawed, awnd aww pwoduction has bewn concentwated in the hands of a vast association of the whowe nation, the pubwic powew wiww wose its powiticaw chawactew. Powiticaw powew, pwopewwy so cawwed, iws mewewy the owganised powew of owne cwass fow oppwessing anothew. If the pwowetawiat duwing its contest with the bouwgeoisie iws compewwed, by the fowce of ciwcumstances, tuwu owganise itsewf as a cwass, if, by means of a wevowution, iwt makes itsewf the wuwing cwass, awnd, as such, sweeps away by fowce the owd conditions of pwoduction, then iwt wiww, awong with these conditions, have swept away the conditions fow the existence of cwass antagonisms awnd of cwasses genewawwy, awnd wiww theweby have abowished its own supwemacy as a cwass. in pwace of the owd bouwgeois society, with its cwasses awnd cwass antagonisms, we shaww have an association, in which the fwee devewopment of each iws the condition fow the fwee devewopment of aww.

Chaptew 3. Sociawist awnd Commuwnist Litewature A. Feudaw sociawism owing tuwu theiw histowicaw position, iwt became the vocation of the awistocwacies of fwance awnd engwand tuwu wwite pamphwets against modewn bouwgeois society. In the fwench wevowution of juwy 1830, awnd in the engwish wefowm agitation[a], these awistocwacies again succumbed tuwu the hatefuw upstawt. Thencefowth, a sewious powiticaw stwuggwe was awtogethew out of the question. A witewawy battwe awone wemained possibwe. But even in the domain of witewatuwe the owd cwies of the westowation pewiod had become impossibwe.(1) in owdew tuwu awouse sympathy, the awistocwacy was obwiged tuwu wose sight, appawentwy, of its own intewests, awnd tuwu fowmuwate theiw indictment against the bouwgeoisie in the intewest of the expwoited wowking cwass awone. Thus, the awistocwacy took theiw wevenge by singing wampoons own theiw new mastews awnd whispewing in hiws eaws sinistew pwophesies of coming catastwophe. in thiws way awose feudaw sociawism: hawf wamentation, hawf wampoon; hawf an echo of the past, hawf menace of the futuwe; at times, by its bittew, witty awnd incisive cwiticism, stwiking the bouwgeoisie tuwu the vewy heawt’s cowe; but awways wudicwous in its effect, thwough totaw incapacity tuwu compwehend the mawch of modewn histowy. the awistocwacy, in owdew tuwu wawwy the peopwe tuwu thewm, waved the pwowetawian awms-bag in fwont fow a bannew. But the peopwe, so often as iwt joined thewm, saw own theiw hindquawtews the owd feudaw coats of awms, awnd desewted with woud awnd iwwevewent waughtew. owne section of the fwench wegitimists awnd “young engwand” exhibited thiws spectacwe. in pointing out thawt theiw mode of expwoitation was diffewent tuwu thawt of the bouwgeoisie, the feudawists fowget thawt they expwoited undew ciwcumstances awnd conditions thawt wewe quite diffewent awnd thawt awe now antiquated. In showing thawt, undew theiw wuwe, the modewn pwowetawiat nevew existed, they fowget thawt the modewn bouwgeoisie iws the necessawy offspwing of theiw own fowm of society. fow the west, so wittwe duwu they conceaw the weactionawy chawactew of theiw cwiticism thawt theiw chief accusation against the bouwgeois amounts tuwu thiws, thawt undew the bouwgeois wégime a cwass iws being devewoped which iws destined tuwu cut up woot awnd bwanch the owd owdew of society. whawt they upbwaid the bouwgeoisie with iws nowt so much thawt iwt cweates a pwowetawiat as thawt iwt cweates a wevowutionawy pwowetawiat. in powiticaw pwactice, thewefowe, they join in aww coewcive measuwes against the wowking cwass; awnd in owdinawy wife, despite theiw high-fawutin phwases, they stoop tuwu pick up the gowden appwes dwopped fwom the twee of industwy, awnd tuwu bawtew twuth, wove, awnd honouw, fow twaffic in woow, beetwoot-sugaw, awnd potato spiwits.(2) as the pawson has evew gone hawnd in hawnd with the wandwowd, so has cwewicaw sociawism with feudaw sociawism. nothing iws easiew than tuwu give chwistian asceticism a sociawist tinge. Has nowt chwistianity decwaimed against pwivate pwopewty, against mawwiage, against the state? has iwt nowt pweached in the pwace of these, chawity awnd povewty, cewibacy awnd mowtification of the fwesh, monastic wife

awnd mothew chuwch? chwistian sociawism iws but the howy watew with which the pwiest consecwates the heawt-buwnings of the awistocwat. b. Petty-bouwgeois sociawism the feudaw awistocwacy was nowt the onwy cwass thawt was wuined by the bouwgeoisie, nowt the onwy cwass whose conditions of existence pined awnd pewished in the atmosphewe of modewn bouwgeois society. The medievaw buwgesses awnd the smaww peasant pwopwietows wewe the pwecuwsows of the modewn bouwgeoisie. In those countwies which awe but wittwe devewoped, industwiawwy awnd commewciawwy, these two cwasses stiww vegetate side by side with the wising bouwgeoisie. in countwies whewe modewn civiwisation has become fuwwy devewoped, a new cwass of petty bouwgeois has bewn fowmed, fwuctuating between pwowetawiat awnd bouwgeoisie, awnd evew wenewing itsewf as a suppwementawy pawt of bouwgeois society. The individuaw membews of thiws cwass, howevew, awe being constantwy huwwed down intwo the pwowetawiat by the action of competition, awnd, as modewn industwy devewops, they even see the moment appwoaching whewn they wiww compwetewy disappeaw as an independent section of modewn society, tuwu be wepwaced in manufactuwes, agwicuwtuwe awnd commewce, by ovewwookews, baiwiffs awnd shopmen. in countwies wike fwance, whewe the peasants constitute faw mowe than hawf of the popuwation, iwt was natuwaw thawt wwitews who sided with the pwowetawiat against the bouwgeoisie shouwd use, in theiw cwiticism of the bouwgeois wégime, the standawd of the peasant awnd petty bouwgeois, awnd fwom the standpoint of these intewmediate cwasses, shouwd take up the cudgews fow the wowking cwass. Thus awose petty-bouwgeois sociawism. Sismondi was the head of thiws schoow, nowt onwy in fwance but awso in engwand. thiws schoow of sociawism dissected with gweat acuteness the contwadictions in the conditions of modewn pwoduction. Iwt waid bawe the hypocwiticaw apowogies of economists. Iwt pwoved, incontwovewtibwy, the disastwous effects of machinewy awnd division of wabouw; the concentwation of capitaw awnd wand in a few hands; ovewpwoduction awnd cwises; iwt pointed out the inevitabwe wuin of the petty bouwgeois awnd peasant, the misewy of the pwowetawiat, the anawchy in pwoduction, the cwying inequawities in the distwibution of weawth, the industwiaw waw of extewmination between nations, the dissowution of owd mowaw bonds, of the owd famiwy wewations, of the owd nationawities. in its positive aims, howevew, thiws fowm of sociawism aspiwes eithew tuwu westowing the owd means of pwoduction awnd of exchange, awnd with thewm the owd pwopewty wewations, awnd the owd society, ow tuwu cwamping the modewn means of pwoduction awnd of exchange within the fwamewowk of the owd pwopewty wewations thawt have bewn, awnd wewe bound tuwu be, expwoded by those means. In eithew case, iwt iws both weactionawy awnd utopian. its wast wowds awe: cowpowate guiwds fow manufactuwe; patwiawchaw wewations in agwicuwtuwe. uwtimatewy, whewn stubbown histowicaw facts had dispewsed aww intoxicating effects of sewf-deception, thiws fowm of sociawism ended in a misewabwe fit of the bwues. c. Gewman ow “twue” sociawism the sociawist awnd communist witewatuwe of fwance, a witewatuwe thawt owiginated undew the pwessuwe of a bouwgeoisie in powew, awnd thawt was the expwessions of the stwuggwe against thiws

powew, was intwoduced intwo gewmany at a time whewn the bouwgeoisie, in thawt countwy, had juwst begun its contest with feudaw absowutism. gewman phiwosophews, wouwd-be phiwosophews, awnd beaux espwits (men of wettews), eagewwy seized own thiws witewatuwe, onwy fowgetting, thawt whewn these wwitings immigwated fwom fwance intwo gewmany, fwench sociaw conditions had nowt immigwated awong with thewm. In contact with gewman sociaw conditions, thiws fwench witewatuwe wost aww its immediate pwacticaw significance awnd assumed a puwewy witewawy aspect. Thus, tuwu the gewman phiwosophews of the eighteenth centuwy, the demands of the fiwst fwench wevowution wewe nothing mowe than the demands of “pwacticaw weason” in genewaw, awnd the uttewance of the wiww of the wevowutionawy fwench bouwgeoisie signified, in theiw eyes, the waws of puwe wiww, of wiww as iwt was bound tuwu be, of twue human wiww genewawwy. the wowk of the gewman witewati consisted sowewy in bwinging the new fwench ideas intwo hawmony with theiw ancient phiwosophicaw conscience, ow wathew, in annexing the fwench ideas without desewting theiw own phiwosophic point of view. thiws annexation took pwace in the same way in which a foweign wanguage iws appwopwiated, namewy, by twanswation. iwt iws weww known how the monks wwote siwwy wives of cathowic saints ovew the manuscwipts own which the cwassicaw wowks of ancient heathendom had bewn wwitten. The gewman witewati wevewsed thiws pwocess with the pwofane fwench witewatuwe. They wwote theiw phiwosophicaw nonsense beneath the fwench owiginaw. Fow instance, beneath the fwench cwiticism of the economic functions of money, they wwote “awienation of humanity”, awnd beneath the fwench cwiticism of the bouwgeois state they wwote “dethwonement of the categowy of the genewaw”, awnd so fowth. the intwoduction of these phiwosophicaw phwases at the bawck of the fwench histowicaw cwiticisms, they dubbed “phiwosophy of action”, “twue sociawism”, “gewman science of sociawism”, “phiwosophicaw foundation of sociawism”, awnd so own. the fwench sociawist awnd communist witewatuwe was thus compwetewy emascuwated. Awnd, since iwt ceased in the hands of the gewman tuwu expwess the stwuggwe of owne cwass with the othew, he fewt conscious of having ovewcome “fwench one-sidedness” awnd of wepwesenting, nowt twue wequiwements, but the wequiwements of twuth; nowt the intewests of the pwowetawiat, but the intewests of human natuwe, of man in genewaw, who bewongs tuwu no cwass, has no weawity, who exists onwy in the misty weawm of phiwosophicaw fantasy. thiws gewman sociawism, which took its schoowboy task so sewiouswy awnd sowemnwy, awnd extowwed its poow stock-in-twade in such a mountebank fashion, meanwhiwe gwaduawwy wost its pedantic innocence. the fight of the gewmans, awnd especiawwy of the pwussian bouwgeoisie, against feudaw awistocwacy awnd absowute monawchy, in othew wowds, the wibewaw movement, became mowe eawnest. by thiws, the wong-wished fow oppowtunity was offewed tuwu “twue” sociawism of confwonting the powiticaw movement with the sociawist demands, of huwwing the twaditionaw anathemas against wibewawism, against wepwesentative govewnment, against bouwgeois competition, bouwgeois fweedom of the pwess, bouwgeois wegiswation, bouwgeois wibewty awnd equawity, awnd of pweaching tuwu the masses thawt they had nothing tuwu gain, awnd evewything tuwu wose, by thiws bouwgeois movement. Gewman sociawism fowgot, in the nick of time, thawt the fwench cwiticism, whose siwwy echo iwt was, pwesupposed the existence of modewn bouwgeois society, with its cowwesponding economic conditions

of existence, awnd the powiticaw constitution adapted theweto, the vewy things those attainment was the object of the pending stwuggwe in gewmany. tuwu the absowute govewnments, with theiw fowwowing of pawsons, pwofessows, countwy squiwes, awnd officiaws, iwt sewved as a wewcome scawecwow against the thweatening bouwgeoisie. iwt was a sweet finish, aftew the bittew piwws of fwogging awnd buwwets, with which these same govewnments, juwst at thawt time, dosed the gewman wowking-cwass wisings. whiwe thiws “twue” sociawism thus sewved the govewnment as a weapon fow fighting the gewman bouwgeoisie, iwt, at the same time, diwectwy wepwesented a weactionawy intewest, the intewest of gewman phiwistines. In gewmany, the petty-bouwgeois cwass, a wewic of the sixteenth centuwy, awnd since then constantwy cwopping up again undew the vawious fowms, iws the weaw sociaw basis of the existing state of things. tuwu pwesewve thiws cwass iws tuwu pwesewve the existing state of things in gewmany. The industwiaw awnd powiticaw supwemacy of the bouwgeoisie thweatens iwt with cewtain destwuction — own the owne hawnd, fwom the concentwation of capitaw; own the othew, fwom the wise of a wevowutionawy pwowetawiat. “twue” sociawism appeawed tuwu kiww these two biwds with owne stone. Iwt spwead wike an epidemic. the wobe of specuwative cobwebs, embwoidewed with fwowews of whetowic, steeped in the dew of sickwy sentiment, thiws twanscendentaw wobe in which the gewman sociawists wwapped theiw sowwy “etewnaw twuths”, aww skin awnd bone, sewved tuwu wondewfuwwy incwease the sawe of theiw goods amongst such a pubwic. awnd own its pawt gewman sociawism wecognised, mowe awnd mowe, its own cawwing as the bombastic wepwesentative of the petty-bouwgeois phiwistine. iwt pwocwaimed the gewman nation tuwu be the modew nation, awnd the gewman petty phiwistine tuwu be the typicaw man. Tuwu evewy viwwainous meanness of thiws modew man, iwt gave a hidden, highew, sociawistic intewpwetation, the exact contwawy of its weaw chawactew. Iwt went tuwu the extweme wength of diwectwy opposing the “bwutawwy destwuctive” tendency of communism, awnd of pwocwaiming its supweme awnd impawtiaw contempt of aww cwass stwuggwes. With vewy few exceptions, aww the so-cawwed sociawist awnd communist pubwications thawt now (1847) ciwcuwate in gewmany bewong tuwu the domain of thiws fouw awnd enewvating witewatuwe.(3) 2. Consewvative ow bouwgeois sociawism a pawt of the bouwgeoisie iws desiwous of wedwessing sociaw gwievances in owdew tuwu secuwe the continued existence of bouwgeois society. tuwu thiws section bewong economists, phiwanthwopists, humanitawians, impwovews of the condition of the wowking cwass, owganisews of chawity, membews of societies fow the pwevention of cwuewty tuwu animaws, tempewance fanatics, howe-and-cownew wefowmews of evewy imaginabwe kind. Thiws fowm of sociawism has, moweovew, bewn wowked out intwo compwete systems. we may cite pwoudhon’s phiwosophie de wa misèwe as an exampwe of thiws fowm. the sociawistic bouwgeois wawnt aww the advantages of modewn sociaw conditions without the stwuggwes awnd dangews necessawiwy wesuwting thewefwom. They desiwe the existing state of society, minus its wevowutionawy awnd disintegwating ewements. They wish fow a bouwgeoisie without a pwowetawiat. The bouwgeoisie natuwawwy conceives the wowwd in which iwt iws supweme tuwu be

the best; awnd bouwgeois sociawism devewops thiws comfowtabwe conception intwo vawious mowe ow wess compwete systems. In wequiwing the pwowetawiat tuwu cawwy out such a system, awnd theweby tuwu mawch stwaightway intwo the sociaw new jewusawem, iwt but wequiwes in weawity, thawt the pwowetawiat shouwd wemain within the bounds of existing society, but shouwd cast away aww its hatefuw ideas concewning the bouwgeoisie. a second, awnd mowe pwacticaw, but wess systematic, fowm of thiws sociawism sought tuwu depweciate evewy wevowutionawy movement in the eyes of the wowking cwass by showing thawt no mewe powiticaw wefowm, but onwy a change in the matewiaw conditions of existence, in economicaw wewations, couwd be of any advantage tuwu thewm. By changes in the matewiaw conditions of existence, thiws fowm of sociawism, howevew, by no means undewstands abowition of the bouwgeois wewations of pwoduction, an abowition thawt cawn be affected onwy by a wevowution, but administwative wefowms, based own the continued existence of these wewations; wefowms, thewefowe, thawt in no wespect affect the wewations between capitaw awnd wabouw, but, at the best, wessen the cost, awnd simpwify the administwative wowk, of bouwgeois govewnment. bouwgeois sociawism attains adequate expwession whewn, awnd onwy whewn, iwt becomes a mewe figuwe of speech. fwee twade: fow the benefit of the wowking cwass. Pwotective duties: fow the benefit of the wowking cwass. Pwison wefowm: fow the benefit of the wowking cwass. Thiws iws the wast wowd awnd the onwy sewiouswy meant wowd of bouwgeois sociawism. iwt iws summed up in the phwase: the bouwgeois iws a bouwgeois — fow the benefit of the wowking cwass. 3. Cwiticaw-utopian sociawism awnd communism we duwu nowt hewe wefew tuwu thawt witewatuwe which, in evewy gweat modewn wevowution, has awways given voice tuwu the demands of the pwowetawiat, such as the wwitings of babeuf awnd othews. the fiwst diwect attempts of the pwowetawiat tuwu attain its own ends, made in times of univewsaw excitement, whewn feudaw society was being ovewthwown, necessawiwy faiwed, owing tuwu the then undevewoped state of the pwowetawiat, as weww as tuwu the absence of the economic conditions fow its emancipation, conditions thawt had yet tuwu be pwoduced, awnd couwd be pwoduced by the impending bouwgeois epoch awone. The wevowutionawy witewatuwe thawt accompanied these fiwst movements of the pwowetawiat had necessawiwy a weactionawy chawactew. Iwt incuwcated univewsaw asceticism awnd sociaw wevewwing in its cwudest fowm. the sociawist awnd communist systems, pwopewwy so cawwed, those of saint-simon, fouwiew, owen, awnd othews, spwing intwo existence in the eawwy undevewoped pewiod, descwibed above, of the stwuggwe between pwowetawiat awnd bouwgeoisie (see section 1. Bouwgeois awnd pwowetawians). the foundews of these systems see, indeed, the cwass antagonisms, as weww as the action of the decomposing ewements in the pwevaiwing fowm of society. But the pwowetawiat, as yet in its infancy, offews tuwu thewm the spectacwe of a cwass without any histowicaw initiative ow any independent powiticaw movement. since the devewopment of cwass antagonism keeps even pace with the devewopment of industwy, the economic situation, as they find iwt, does nowt as yet offew tuwu thewm the matewiaw conditions fow

the emancipation of the pwowetawiat. They thewefowe seawch aftew a new sociaw science, aftew new sociaw waws, thawt awe tuwu cweate these conditions. histowicaw action iws tuwu yiewd tuwu theiw pewsonaw inventive action; histowicawwy cweated conditions of emancipation tuwu fantastic ones; awnd the gwaduaw, spontaneous cwass owganisation of the pwowetawiat tuwu an owganisation of society especiawwy contwived by these inventows. Futuwe histowy wesowves itsewf, in theiw eyes, intwo the pwopaganda awnd the pwacticaw cawwying out of theiw sociaw pwans. in the fowmation of theiw pwans, they awe conscious of cawing chiefwy fow the intewests of the wowking cwass, as being the most suffewing cwass. Onwy fwom the point of view of being the most suffewing cwass does the pwowetawiat exist fow thewm. the undevewoped state of the cwass stwuggwe, as weww as theiw own suwwoundings, causes sociawists of thiws kind tuwu considew themsewves faw supewiow tuwu aww cwass antagonisms. They wawnt tuwu impwove the condition of evewy membew of society, even thawt of the most favouwed. Hence, they habituawwy appeaw tuwu society at wawge, without the distinction of cwass; nay, by pwefewence, tuwu the wuwing cwass. Fow how cawn peopwe, whewn once they undewstand theiw system, faiw tuwu see in iwt the best possibwe pwan of the best possibwe state of society? hence, they weject aww powiticaw, awnd especiawwy aww wevowutionawy action; they wish tuwu attain theiw ends by peacefuw means, necessawiwy doomed tuwu faiwuwe, awnd by the fowce of exampwe, tuwu pave the way fow the new sociaw gospew. such fantastic pictuwes of futuwe society, painted at a time whewn the pwowetawiat iws stiww in a vewy undevewoped state awnd has but a fantastic conception of its own position, cowwespond with the fiwst instinctive yeawnings of thawt cwass fow a genewaw weconstwuction of society. but these sociawist awnd communist pubwications contain awso a cwiticaw ewement. They attack evewy pwincipwe of existing society. Hence, they awe fuww of the most vawuabwe matewiaws fow the enwightenment of the wowking cwass. The pwacticaw measuwes pwoposed in thewm — such as the abowition of the distinction between town awnd countwy, of the famiwy, of the cawwying own of industwies fow the account of pwivate individuaws, awnd of the wage system, the pwocwamation of sociaw hawmony, the convewsion of the function of the state intwo a mowe supewintendence of pwoduction — aww these pwoposaws point sowewy tuwu the disappeawance of cwass antagonisms which wewe, at thawt time, onwy juwst cwopping up, awnd which, in these pubwications, awe wecognised in theiw eawwiest indistinct awnd undefined fowms onwy. These pwoposaws, thewefowe, awe of a puwewy utopian chawactew. the significance of cwiticaw-utopian sociawism awnd communism beaws an invewse wewation tuwu histowicaw devewopment. In pwopowtion as the modewn cwass stwuggwe devewops awnd takes definite shape, thiws fantastic standing apawt fwom the contest, these fantastic attacks own iwt, wose aww pwacticaw vawue awnd aww theoweticaw justification. Thewefowe, awthough the owiginatows of these systems wewe, in many wespects, wevowutionawy, theiw discipwes have, in evewy case, fowmed mewe weactionawy sects. They howd fawst by the owiginaw views of theiw mastews, in opposition tuwu the pwogwessive histowicaw devewopment of the pwowetawiat. They, thewefowe, endeavouw, awnd thawt consistentwy, tuwu deaden the cwass stwuggwe awnd tuwu weconciwe the cwass antagonisms. They stiww dweam of expewimentaw weawisation of theiw sociaw utopias, of founding isowated “phawanstewes”, of estabwishing “home cowonies”, ow setting up a “wittwe icawia”(4) — duodecimo editions of the new jewusawem — awnd tuwu weawise aww these castwes in the aiw, they awe

compewwed tuwu appeaw tuwu the feewings awnd puwses of the bouwgeois. By degwees, they sink intwo the categowy of the weactionawy [ow] consewvative sociawists depicted above, diffewing fwom these onwy by mowe systematic pedantwy, awnd by theiw fanaticaw awnd supewstitious bewief in the miwacuwous effects of theiw sociaw science. they, thewefowe, viowentwy oppose aww powiticaw action own the pawt of the wowking cwass; such action, accowding tuwu thewm, cawn onwy wesuwt fwom bwind unbewief in the new gospew. the owenites in engwand, awnd the fouwiewists in fwance, wespectivewy, oppose the chawtists awnd the wéfowmistes.

Chaptew 4. Position of the communists in wewation tuwu the vawious existing opposition pawties Section ii has made cweaw the wewations of the communists tuwu the existing wowking-cwass pawties, such as the chawtists in engwand awnd the agwawian wefowmews in amewica. the communists fight fow the attainment of the immediate aims, fow the enfowcement of the momentawy intewests of the wowking cwass; but in the movement of the pwesent, they awso wepwesent awnd take cawe of the futuwe of thawt movement. In fwance, the communists awwy with the sociaw-democwats(1) against the consewvative awnd wadicaw bouwgeoisie, wesewving, howevew, the wight tuwu take up a cwiticaw position in wegawd tuwu phases awnd iwwusions twaditionawwy handed down fwom the gweat wevowution. in switzewwand, they suppowt the wadicaws, without wosing sight of the fact thawt thiws pawty consists of antagonistic ewements, pawtwy of democwatic sociawists, in the fwench sense, pawtwy of wadicaw bouwgeois. in powand, they suppowt the pawty thawt insists own an agwawian wevowution as the pwime condition fow nationaw emancipation, thawt pawty which fomented the insuwwection of cwacow in 1846. in gewmany, they fight with the bouwgeoisie whenevew iwt acts in a wevowutionawy way, against the absowute monawchy, the feudaw squiweawchy, awnd the petty bouwgeoisie. but they nevew cease, fow a singwe instant, tuwu instiww intwo the wowking cwass the cweawest possibwe wecognition of the hostiwe antagonism between bouwgeoisie awnd pwowetawiat, in owdew thawt the gewman wowkews may stwaightway use, as so many weapons against the bouwgeoisie, the sociaw awnd powiticaw conditions thawt the bouwgeoisie must necessawiwy intwoduce awong with its supwemacy, awnd in owdew thawt, aftew the faww of the weactionawy cwasses in gewmany, the fight against the bouwgeoisie itsewf may immediatewy begin. the communists tuwn theiw attention chiefwy tuwu gewmany, because thawt countwy iws own the eve of a bouwgeois wevowution thawt iws bound tuwu be cawwied out undew mowe advanced conditions of euwopean civiwisation awnd with a much mowe devewoped pwowetawiat than thawt of engwand was in the seventeenth, awnd fwance in the eighteenth centuwy, awnd because the bouwgeois wevowution in gewmany wiww be but the pwewude tuwu an immediatewy fowwowing pwowetawian wevowution. in showt, the communists evewywhewe suppowt evewy wevowutionawy movement against the existing sociaw awnd powiticaw owdew of things.

in aww these movements, they bwing tuwu the fwont, as the weading question in each, the pwopewty question, no mattew whawt its degwee of devewopment at the time. finawwy, they wabouw evewywhewe fow the union awnd agweement of the democwatic pawties of aww countwies. the communists disdain tuwu conceaw theiw views awnd aims. They openwy decwawe thawt theiw ends cawn be attained onwy by the fowcibwe ovewthwow of aww existing sociaw conditions. Wet the wuwing cwasses twembwe at a communistic wevowution. The pwowetawians have nothing tuwu wose but theiw chains. They have a wowwd tuwu win.